According to Section 35 of the Administrative Procedure Act (Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz), an administrative act is an order, decision or other sovereign measure, which is taken by an authority to regulate an individual case under public law and which is directed to direct external legal effect.
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The administrative act may be favouring (e.g. approval decision on a grant application) or incriminating (e.g. prohibition of a trade).
A Chamber of the Court decides in proceedings before the administrative courts. It is usually presided over by three professional judges and two lay judges. The administrative court generally decides on the basis of a hearing. The dispute matter is discussed with stakeholders and evidence is collected. Both parties get the opportunity to make their statements. If the parties waive a hearing, a decision may be passed by written procedure.
You can appeal against a decision passed by the administrative court only if it is allowed by the administrative court or at the request of the higher administrative court. The appeal shall be decided by the competent chamber of the court presided over by three professional judges and two lay judges.
An appeal or complaint of refusal of the appeal may be lodged against a decision of the higher administrative court. This will be decided by the Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig.
The Applicant must, in principle, be represented by a counsel at both the Higher Administrative Court and the Federal Administrative Court. A solicitor is, in particular, considered as such a counsel.